Observes similarities and differences among primates in evolutionary perspective, from tree shrews through prosimians, cercopithecidae, ceboidea, and lesser and great apes. Survey of the primates discusses anatomical, social, and maturational differences, as well as geographical distribution, habitats, intelligence, diet, dentition, learned behavior, manual dexterity, and territoriality among a large number of species. Produced by Duane Rumbaugh, Austin H. Riesen, and Robert E. Lee. Primate category.
Illustrates research conducted by E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh between 1976 and 1984 into the nature of language acquisition through the study of symbolic and syntactical skills in primates; the goal of which was to help develop techniques that could be used in teaching language to mentally retarded children. Study guide included. Produced by Savage-Rumbaugh to serve as a visual supplement to her book (Columbia University Press, 1986).. Primate Category
Documents Project Washoe, in which two-way communication was established with a chimpanzee by means of sign language. Topics include: the range of Washoe's vocabulary, including signs for objects, proper names, modifiers, actions, and negatives; the development of sentence-like sequences of signs; and the contexts in which she signed, including requests, answers to questions, spontaneous comments and questions, and blind-testing conditions. Research methodology emphasizes integration of two-way communication into all aspects of chimpanzee daily life and rigorous testing procedures. Produced by Allen and Beatrice Gardner. (primates)
Nature and Development of Affection. A series of observations and experiments analyzing the variables underlying the nature and development of affection in primates. Rhesus monkeys, separated from their mothers at birth, were raised mursing or non-nursing on cloth or wire surrogate mothers. Shows infants being tested for mother preference under a variety of conditions. Results indicate that contact comfort is the primary variable determining affection and attachmentof the rhesus to the mother. Infant moneys develop strong and persisting affectional attachments to the coloth "mother" and behave in a secure manner in her presence. H.F. Harlow and R. Zimmerman. Primate category primate
Examination of the complex social organization of a wild baboon troop. Indicates that the baboon is a social animal and troop members are highly interdependent. Attempts to analyze the nature of this sociability and show its relation to baboon ecology. Discusses the role of males, females, and infants. From the Baboon Social Life series. Produced by S.L. Washburn and I. DeVore.
Documentation of early attempts to teach chimpanzees to verbalize serves as a demonstration that vocal responses can be conditioned. Portrays in detail the training of a single female, who learns to whisper "mama," "papa," and "cup." Show that the chimpanzee applies words with evidence of meaning. K.J. and C. Hayes.
Presents the results of a field study of baboons in Nairobi National Park, Kenya. A general introduction to baboon ecology and social behavior shows the baboons' association with other animals and the relation of the availability of plant foods, water,and safe sleeping trees to the daily movement and annual range of a baboon troop in its natural environment. Traces the development of infant behavior from the infant's close association with its mother at birth to the emergence of adult behavior patterns. Compares aspects of baboon behavior with their counterparts in human development and behavior. From the Baboon Social Life series. Produced by S.L. Washburn and I. DeVore. Blue Ribbon winner, American Film Festival.
Records the social and physical development of a rhesus monkey from birth through the first sixteen weeks. Based on research conducted at a Madingley monkey colony at Cambridge University, the program illustrates the general developmental changes seen in all rhesus monkeys, as well as the personality factors which are unique to each mother-infant relationship. Maternal protective behavior, weaning conflicts, interactions with kin and other group members, and play behavior are documented. Produced by Sylvia Howe. c 1978
Shows the environment of baboons, the climate's effect on their food supply and reproductive cycle, and relationships between baboons and other animals. Illustrates with diagrams the home ranges and core areas of baboon troops and depicts the essential features of a core area. From the Baboon Social Life series. Produced by S.L. Washburn and I. DeVore.
Study of baboons in the Cape Point Nature Reserve, Cape of Good Hope, based on information collected by Professor Hall during 153 days of systematic observation of their behavior within the troop and their interactions with food plants and organisms in the rugged coastal environment. Produced by K.R.L. Hall and C.R. Carpenter for the BBC. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. 1962
A field study report and census of a howler monkey population in its natural habitat on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Describes the environment, observation procedures, locomotion, reproduction, and other behavioral characteristics and social interactions. Produced by C.R. Carpenter.From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. c1960
Observes chimpanzees in the Ivory Coast's Tai National Park as they spend hours each day collecting, opening, and eating coule tree nuts. Examines the nut-cracking activities of chimpanzee groups, revealing the chimps' relationships, social life, and dominance. Contrasts the nut-cracking patterns of female and male chimpanzees, with emphasis on the caregiving habits of mother chimps and the evolution of nut-cracking ability in their young. Filmmakers: Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann.(Ref: Boesch, C., and Boesch-Achermann, H., "Dim forest, bright chimps," Natural History Magazine, September 1991.
Explains the materials and technique used in the construction of surface and depth electrodes and surgery for permanent implantation. Shows the movements of monkeys with the simultaneous electrical activity of the septal area, motor cortex, and anterior and posterior hippocampus. Notes that of the anterior hippocampus produced automatisms and electrical after-discharges affecting the anterior and posterior hippocampus and septal area, but not the motor cortex. Shows that the motor cortex evokes motor and electrical seizures, first observable in the motor area and later in the hippocampus, and demonstrates the independence of the motor cortex and the hippocampus. J.M.R. Delgado.
Investigates the social behavior of young gibbons on Hall's Island. Shows communicative behavior patterns during interactions and pair formation, and looks at behavioral components of play including copulation, wrestling, chasing, and surprise approaches. Also illustrates the use of core parts of territorial ranges as pair and / or individual sleeping sites. Produced by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series.
Documents fieldwork on wild monkeys, Macaca sylvanus, in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Special emphasis is given to situations in which an adult monkey uses an infant to regulate social interactions with other adults. Includes descriptions of sex and age classes, effects of seasonal changes on behavior and dispersion, and a discussion of social roles. Produced by J. M. Deag of the University of Edinburgh.
Depicts the ecology of Hall's Island, Bermuda -- the location of a small free-ranging colony of white-handed gibbons. Introduces each gibbon, identifying its special characteristics, and looks at the gibbon's daily activity cycle: foraging for plant and animal foods, reacting to new food objects, drinking patterns, grooming, resting, and sleeping. Produced by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series.
C.R. Carpenter's ecological and behavioral study of primate colonies indigenous to Japan. Examines three groups of the Takasakiyama colony who have distinct territorial ranges but who rotate use of a common feeding ground and temple grove. Points out that spatial distribution patterns reflect social organization and that communication by sentinel-tree signaling regulates intergroup and intragroup actions. Shows mother-infant conditioning through positive and negative reinforcements, adaptive learning, and grooming as a conditioning activity, and looks at animals in the Koshima Island colony who transmit to infants and juveniles the learned behavior of washing potatoes and separating wheat from sand. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series.
Explains that gibbons on Hall's Island exhibit basic patterns of semi vertical trunk orientation in walking and swinging, which may represent one phase in the evolution of human upright posture. Illustrates individual variation in locomotion: brachiation, swinging, climbing, walking, and jumping. A slow-motion sequence reveals details of locomotion. Produced by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series.
silent copyright 1951 Viki, a home-raised chimpanzee, is shown at ages twenty to thirty-six months performing such imitative actions as making gestures, hammering, blowing a whistle, and opening a can. In some cases, a delay is involved before imitation is permitted. Also touches on Viki's problem-solving behavior. The same animal had received previous tuition in vocalization. Also see Vocalization and Speech in Chimpanzees . K.J. and C. Hayes. 1951.
Depicts the social, agonistic, sexual, and play behavior of the wild Gelada baboon, Theropithecus gelada, in the remote mountains of Ethiopia. Reveals in particular the complex "harem-based" social organization and describes the way in which social structure changes when the distribution of food becomes patchy in the dry season. Produced by J.H. Crook of the University of Bristol.
Mechanical Interest and Ability in a Home Raised Chimpanzee Parts 1-4 Briefly demonstrates the structure and function of a chimpanzee's hands. Follows, from eight months to six years, the development of Viki's manual dexterity in such activities as playing with blocks and toys, fastening snap-and-ring sets, attempting to tie knots, filing one's own nails, and using carpenter's tools. Also see Imitation in a Home-Raised Chimpanzee K.J. and C. Hayes.
Looks at the normal behavior of individual rhesus monkeys in a seminatural environment. Presents their general appearance, postures and variations, locomotion (including climbing and swinging), manipulation, prehension, and gross anatomical features. Shows age and sex differences and the monkeys' behavior capacities in a wide range of situations and adaptational meanings. Directed by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. Dated, but of historical interest. 1947 Primate category.
Looks at Gibbons in "free" situations, observing characteristics of their behavior, general appearance,varieties of postures, locomotion (including swinging and semiupright walking), and manipulation.Discusses gross anatomical features in relation to basic patterns of behavior, phylogenetic adaptations and stages in postural and locomotor development,and theory of primate postural evolution. Produced by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. Dated, but of historical interest. c 1942.
Hall's Island, Bermuda, provides a free-ranging environment for a group of white-handed gibbons,Hylobates lar. The island's facilities were designed for naturalistic behavioral research and for rehabituation of captive gibbons. Within the framework of a typical day of research, the program shows the observation and maintenance facilities, techniques used in the recording of behavioral observations, and the types of gibbon behavior patterns observed on the island. Directed by C.R. Carpenter, Lori Baldwin, and Geza Teleki. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. c 1973.
Records, in informal style, some of a young chimpanzee's activities while raised in a home environment Meshie plays with a hose, joins in games with children, manipulates tools, eats with a spoon, and rides a tricycle. Learning tool manipulation and building a ground nest illustrate the interaction of learning and genetic programming in primate behavior. Serves as an historical record, one of the first films on raising a chimpanzee with human companions. Produced by H. Raven. 1929 silent c Harry L. Shapiro 1974. Primate category.
Presents the results of an intensive year-long behavioral study of the mountain gorilla in its natural habitat in central Africa. Describes their environment, behavioral characteristics, and social organization. Produced by George B. Schaller and C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series.
Compares the behavior of a human infant (10 to 14 1/2 months old) and a chimpanzee infant (7 1/2 to 12 months old), both raised in the same home environment. Looks at upright walking, affectionate behavior toward adults, strength, indoor and outdoor play, responses to water, and reactions while riding in vehicles. From the Ape and Child series. Produced by W.N. Kellogg.historical interest.silent 1932
Compares the "incidental" or nonexperimental behavior of a human infant (16 to 19 months old) and a chimpanzee infant (13 1/2 to 16 1/2 months old), both raised in the same home environment. Looks at upright walking, reaction to a colored picture book, climbing, eating with a spoon, drinking from a glass, cooperative play, the Gesell test of pointing to parts of the body, imitation of an experimenter's drawing, and affectionate behavior toward each other. From the Ape and Child series. Produced by W.N. Kellogg. Historical interest. silent 1932
Observes complex problems solved by a normal human infant, aged 16 to 19 months, and a young chimpanzee, aged 13 1/2 to 16 1/2 months, who lived together for six months previous to performance. The tests shown are hand-in-loop, foot-in-loop, sound localization, suspended cookie, and hoe experiment. Notes that the ape consistently learns various tasks more rapidly than the infant. From the Ape and Child series. Produced by W.N. Kellogg. Dated, but of historical interest.
Describes the reactions of a normal human infant between the ages of 10 and 14 1/2 months and a chimpanzee companion, age 7 1/2 to 12 months, to the same tests. Examines the effects of different rates of growth and learning abilities as well as the capacity of the animal to outdo the child in many tests. Tests include hand preference, startle reaction time, delayed reaction, cap-on-head (demonstrating manipulative ability of hands and arms), detour, tickle, ice, and rotation (showing general behavior and nystagmic eye movements). From the Ape and Child series. Produced by W.N. Kellogg. Dated, but of historical interest.
Summarizes a software program developed to determine whether Lana chimpanzee could learn to count through the use of a computer-monitored, video-formatted system. Lana used a joystick to control the movement of a cursor on the screen to touch a target number of boxes -- one, two, or three -- in order to obtain a reward. Illustrates her performance in various phases of the training program. Produced by Duane Rumbaugh, Language Research Center at Georgia State University, and Yerkes Primate Center atEmory University. Primate Category
Records the naturalistic behavior of wild Cebus monkeys, Cebus capucinus. Includes descriptions of age and sex classes, locomotion, feeding ecology, vocalizations, and social behavior patterns such as play, grooming, displays, displacement, and agonistic behavior. Directed by J.R. Oppenheimer. 1974
Monkeys are rendered neurotic by feeding-fear conflicts. Symptoms include habit disintegration, aversions and phobias, stereotypes, passivity and dependence, defecation, autofellatio, homosexual behavior, irritability, hostility, and somatic dysfunctions.. Restricted to psychology and academic professional use. J.H. Masserman and C. Pechtel c 1951.
Documents the locomotion of a free-ranging group of young Hylobates lar on Laulanui Island, Hawaii. Observes brachiating in slow and normal motion, winding in and out of trees, trail leading, walking and running, and walking and brachiating while foraging for berries. Produced by A.H. Esser. c 1971
Monkeys are trained to a stimulus sequence - low brightness warning light, a bright-safe light, a bright-shock light. Response during bright-safe produces food reward and prevents shock. Results of variations in the stimulus sequence indicate that if an unpredictab experiential capacities for control, it induces aberrations of behavior that range in intensity, diversity,and persistence from what in humans would be called neurotic to psychotic. M. Woolf and J.H.Masserman.
Five births of rhesus monkeys filmed at the California Primate Research Center illustrate normal deliveries by experienced mothers, a breech delivery, and a delivery by an inexperienced mother. Each section has titles. Primate category. silent. G. Mitchell.
Views large numbers of rhesus monkeys in a seminatural environment, focusing on the social interactions between male and female, female and young, male and male, female and female, young and young, and male and young. Documents reproductive, maternal, dominance, aggressive, homosexual, play, and general behavior. Directed by C.R. Carpenter. From the C.R. Carpenter Primate Studies series. Dated, but of historical interest. 1947